Book Updates

Check back for Dr Beug's notes on new mushrooms he has found, or perhaps a mushroom whose DNA sequence has exposed a new discovery or resulted in a name change. All updates will include the page number and key lead numbers where the species would have been placed if included in the book.

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Update #1 - April 7, 2021

Yes, the book has not even been published yet, but mushrooms are on their own schedule. I found these after we went to print.

Page 30 10c. “Xerocomellus” mendocinensis is very similar to members of the Xerocomellus diffractis group. It varies from almost blackish to olive-tan and the flesh in the cracks of the cap is tan. It is edible but with little flavor. It fruits in the fall under both oaks and conifers. KOH turns the flesh orange and the cap black.

Page 33, lead 16b. This is the green form of Suillus ponderosus

Page 148, lead 191b Leucoagaricus erythrophaeus is an uncommon small Leucoagaricus species (cap <2.5” wide) that rapidly stains red-orange in all parts and then slowly turns dark brown. It grows mostly on the coast in mixed forests and is known from parts of the Cascades. It fruits in the fall. The edibility is unknown. Compare to Lepiota flammeotincta, a species where only the cap and stipe but NOT the gills instantly stains red-orange and then slowly turns dark brown.

Page 228, lead 326e Nolanea cf strictior is a conic to bell-shaped hygrophanous species with a cap (<2.5” wide) that that is dark brown when moist, fading to brownish-orange when dry. The gills are pallid when young. It fruits spring-fall under both hardwoods and conifers and has an indistinct odor and taste. The edibility is unknown. Nolanea verna is very similar in coloration and fruiting but the young gills are brown, and the spores are smaller.

Update #2 - April 28, 2021

Receiving what turns out to be a rare species of fungi from a friend is always a delight. This tuber named after Daniel Luomae was found in the Snowden area of Klickitat County, WA under a Douglas fir tree. It is one of only three Tuber species known from the PNW with spiny spores - and the other two are both associated with oaks. The mycorrhizal association is correct, the color is correct, the spiny spores are there, and it has distinctive inflated cells in the cuticle. The last step is to dry and voucher the sample and send it off for full DNA analysis.

Announcement of this new truffle species in Science News (April 2020). Paper describing Tuber luomae on Research Gate (December 2020).

Page 94, part of the 102a-d - key leads. Microscopically Tuber luomae it is similar to Tuber candidum (one of three spiny spored Tuber species) but associated with Douglas fir, while the other spiny spored species are associated with oaks.

Update #3

March 1, 2022

A re-classification of the Cortinariaceae family

DNA testing is continuing to change our taxonomic understanding of fungi. Changes do not happen without Mycologists publishing papers that explain the DNA results and justify proposed changes. With the help of Danny Miller, I have identified the name changes that affect species included in Mushrooms of Cascadia and all of the new names appear in my May 2022 Update (#6 below) :

Liimatainen, K., Kim, J.T., Pokorny, L. et al. Taming the beast: a revised classification of Cortinariaceae based on genomic data. Fungal Diversity 112, 89–170 (2022).

To view the entire article (free), click on or copy & paste the above url into your web browser.

Summary of Changes - "Based on our results, a classification of the family Cortinariaceae into ten genera—Cortinarius, Phlegmacium, Thaxterogaster, Calonarius, Aureonarius, Cystinarius,Volvanarius, Hygronarius, Mystinarius, and Austrocortinarius—is proposed. Seven genera, 10 subgenera, and four sections are described as new to science and five subgenera are introduced as new combinations in a new rank. In addition, 41section names and 514 species names are combined in new genera and four lecto- and epitypes designated. The position of Stephanopus in suborder Agaricineae remains to be studied.”

Conclusions of paper - "This study is the first family revision in Agaricales based on genomic data and hopefully many others will soon follow. We have come a long way from the time of Fries when all gilled fungi were in one genus, Agaricus (Fries 1821). Since then, mycologists have, in most cases, created smaller and smaller genera due to the increased understanding of the diversity and enhanced ability to collect data of the organisms for taxonomic studies. The same phenomenon has happened in plants and animals. The genus Cortinarius has been an especially difficult group for taxonomists, because it includes an enormous amount of morphological and species diversity. While there have been previous efforts to divide the genus into more manageable, practical, and natural units, none have achieved a natural classification for the whole group. Our proposed classification for Cortinariaceae is more equilevant to contemporary concepts in other genera of gilled fungi and we hope that our framework will be more user-friendly, facilitating the identification, conservation and ecological studies on these fascinating organisms."

Update #4

April 1, 2022

Names of fungi (and indeed all living organisms) have been slowly evolving over at least the past several hundred years. However, recent advances in DNA technology have greatly accelerated the rate at which organisms are reclassified. Even the popular source for learning current “correct” fungal names, Index Fungorum, is behind and struggling to get ahead of the current deluge of new names. Often i-naturalist will be updated before Index Fungorum. I will do my best to use these book updates to keep you up to date to name changes. Also, as I go through the book again and again, I spot typos that I will correct with these updates. Feel free to contact me as you spot other typos or names that need updating. Thank you.

Another huge and difficult family where DNA testing has changed our taxonomic understanding of fungi is the Inocybaceae. The article I refer to here is:

Matheny, P. B., Hobbs, A. B., and Esteve-Raventós, F. Genera of Inocybaceae: New skin for the old ceremony. Mycologia 112(1): 83-120 (2020).

The article itself is not available free, but the abstract follows:

A six-gene phylogeny of the Inocybaceae is presented to address classification of major clades within the family. Seven genera are recognized that establish a global overview of phylogenetic relationships in the Inocybaceae. Two genera—Nothocybe and Pseudosperma—are described as new. Two subgenera of Inocybe—subg. Inosperma and subg. Mallocybe—are elevated to generic rank. These four new genera, together with the previously described Auritella, Tubariomyces, and now Inocybe sensu stricto, constitute the Inocybaceae, an ectomycorrhizal lineage of Agaricales that associates with at least 23 plant families worldwide. Pseudosperma, Nothocybe, and Inocybe are recovered as a strongly supported inclusive clade within the family. The genus Nothocybe, represented by a single species from tropical India, is strongly supported as the sister lineage to Inocybe, a hyperdiverse genus containing hundreds of species and global distribution. Two additional inclusive clades, including Inosperma, Tubariomyces, Auritella, and Mallocybe, and a nested grouping of Auritella, Mallocybe, and Tubariomyces, are recovered but with marginal statistical support. Overall, the six-gene data set provides a more robust phylogenetic estimate of relationships within the family than do single-gene and single-gene-region estimates. In addition, Africa, India, and Australia are characterized by the most genera in the family, with South America containing the fewest number of genera. A total of 180 names are recombined or proposed as new in Inosperma, Mallocybe, and Pseudosperma. A key to genera of Inocybaceae is provided.

The May update to Mushrooms of Cascadia incorporates the new names.

Update #5

April 15, 2022

In the Pacific Northwest we are blessed with a group of researchers who have studied the Pacific Northwest members of the genus Tricholoma and have recently published their results:

Trudell, S.A., Matheny, P. B., Parker, A. D., Gordon, M., Dougil, D. B., and Cline, E. T. Pacific Northwest Tricholomas: Are we Using the Right Names? Published by the Authors, 103 pages (2022)


Despite the fact that Tricholoma includes many large conspicuous woodland fungi, the genus historically has received very little attention in North America and is one of many genera of North American agarics for which identification and other taxonomic resources are largely lacking. More than 130 “Tricholoma” species have been reported to occur in the Pacific Northwest region of North America (PNW), including some no longer accepted in the genus and a large number being referred to, often incorrectly, by names based on European fungi. In light of this uncertainty, we made an initial attempt to clarify the application of Tricholoma species names in the PNW. This included (i) obtaining ITS barcode sequences from holotypes of Tricholoma species described from the PNW, selected other holotypes, and recent, excellent-condition, mostly well-photographed collections; (ii) phylogenetic analysis utilizing 142 sequences generated in this project along with 431 additional sequences obtained from GenBank and other researchers; and (iii) morphological study of selected collections. Our results provide evidence for the existence of at least 50 species of Tricholoma in the PNW. As expected, there are many undescribed species here and a number of European names have been misapplied to our fungi. We estimate that the total number of Tricholoma species in the PNW could be as high as 75 to 100.

The name changes from this new publication have been incorporated into the my May update for Mushrooms of Cascadia.

Update #6

May 2022

Names of fungi (and indeed all living organisms) have been slowly evolving over at least the past several hundred years. However, recent advances in DNA technology have greatly accelerated the rate at which organisms are reclassified. Even the popular source for learning current “correct” fungal names, Index Fungorum, is behind and struggling to get ahead of the current deluge of new names. Often i-naturalist will be updated before Index Fungorum. I will do my best to use these book updates to keep you up to date to name changes. Also, as I go through the book again and again, I spot typos that I will correct with these updates. Feel free to contact me as you spot other typos or names that need updating. Thank you.

Page 18, last entry under 1a. Change “Hyphodontia sambuci” to “Xylodon sambuci” .

Page 19, lead 3a. first line. Change “lactiflorum” to “lactifluorum”.

Page 19, lead 3a, line 5. Change “mottiae” to “regineus”- Boletus mottiae is a DNA match to Boletus regineus.

Page 20, lead 4a. change ‘tubaeformis’ to neotubaeformis. Craterellus tubaeformis is a European species.

Page 21, lead 4c. Remove “group” under the Cantharellus formosus image.

Page 22, lead 4e. Change the spelling to “atrolazulinus” under the image.

Page 24, lead 7d. Change the second image title to Neoboletus turbinatus.

Page 26, lead 8c. Change the entry under the first photo to “Caloboletus frustosus.

Page 31, lead 12a. Add “group” to the image title (we have at least 2 species).

Page 33, lead 16a. Change the heading under the two images to read “Suillus lakei for both images. Several varieties were once recognized but are no longer considered distinct.

Page 34, lead 19a. In the seventh line of the comments, there is an extra “l” in Suillus.

Page 36, lead 22b. Suillus quiescens might be the actual species illustrated.

Page 46, lead 37e. In the second to last line of the comments, the correct spelling is dryophila.

Page 49, lead 45a. Change image title to Helvella acetabulum group since the species in California may be distinct from the one in more northern areas.

Page 50, Change image title to Disciotis venosa group. There may be three of four different species all with similar spores and a chlorine odor.

Page 51, lead 49b. Change “Peziza badia” to “Legaliana badia”.

Page 52, key lead 49d. change the title “Otidea cf leporina” to “Otidea species”

Page 52, key lead 50a. Change the image name to Geoscypha violacea. In April of 2022 I found a similar small violet cup not associated with burns. It may be the European Peziza ampelina.

Page 56, lead 53b. In comments line 3, change spelling to read “hemsiphaerioides”.

Page 58, lead 57a. Delete the current image title entirely. There are 17 documented yellow to orange Orbilia species now described in MycoMatch. In line 6 of the comments, change the spelling from “Molissia” to “Mollisia”.

Page 58, lead 57b. Change spelling of “Adelphia” to “Adelphella” and “babingtonia to “babingtonii” also make a change to babingtonii in the second to last line of the comments.

Page 59, lead 58b. Change clavis to aff. tenuispora (an undescribed species). Cudoniella clavis is also in our region but has a longer stipe and lacks the dark spots on the underside.

Page 65, lead 65a. In the image title change spelling from “lactiflorum” to “lactifluorum”.

Page 67, lead 68b. in two places (image title and comments) change “elisii” to “ellisii”.

Page 69, lead 71b. Change the name to Albatrellopsis confluens (syn. Albatrellopsis flettii). Albatrellopsis confluens is a European species that is never blue. Our mushroom has identical DNA (and so is the same species) but starts out deep blue and fades to ochraceous.

Page 70, lead 71d. Change image title to Phaeolus schweinitzii group. We have two known species and neither one is the European P. schweinitzii.

Page 71, lead 75a. Change title under first image to Lentinus brumalis and the second image title to “Lentinus/Polyporus arcularius”. Polyporus brumalis (mainly on birch, fall-spring, rare in west) is now in Lentinus. Some, but not all, authorities have also moved arcularius (on conifers and hardwoods, summer-fall) to Lentinus. Fungoid odor, mild taste, inedible for both.

Page 72, lead 75b. Recent DNA has uncovered a very common cryptic species, Picipes tubaeformis, that previously has been considered both a variety of Picipes badius and a variety of Cerioporus varius. It is likely that more species remain to be uncovered.

Page 76, lead 81c. Change Postia guttulata to Calcipostia guttulata. In the comments, line 4, change P. stiptica to Amaropostia stiptica.

Page 77, lead 82a. Change the species name to “Cyanosporus caesius group.

Page 80, lead 85a. Preliminary DNA evidence indicates that what we have been calling Ganoderma tsugae in our region is just a form of Ganoderma oregonense. DNA has revealed another species, Ganoderma polychromum. It grows on hardwoods and the flesh is off-white.

Page 82, lead 86b. Change the species name to Trametes betulina.

Page 82, lead 86c. change the spelling of “sepiarum” to “sepiarium

Page 85, lead 90d. Change imager title to Laricifomes officinalis.

Page 85, lead 91a. Change image title to Fomitopsis betulina.

Page 89, lead 95a. Change species name to Lyomyces crustosus.

Page 91, lead 98b. In title for second image, change “Elaphocyces” to “Elaphomyces”.

Page 92, lead 100c. Change second image title to correct spelling: crassirhachis.

Page 94, lead 102c. We have two spiny-spored species under Oregon white oak: Tuber quercicola has a rough, scaly, red exterior; T. candidum has a smooth, tan to reddish-brown exterior.

Page 97, lead 106f. Change title of second image to Phallus hadriani/impudicus. No current consensus on the correct name.

Page 103, lead 115b. In the image title, after hygrometricus add group.

Page 106, lead 121b. Change the label for Clavulina cinerea by adding “group”. The DNA of our C. coralloides is distinct from European material, a new name is probably needed. In the existing second sentence, correct the spelling from “cinera” to “cinereaClavulina reae and several other look-alikes have passed for C. cinerea. Correct the spelling (line 13) to “clavariarum”.

Page 114, lead 132b. In comments, line 9, change spelling to violeitingens and on line 8, change a spelling to euosma.

Page 115, lead 133b. After “No “rusty root” add “(also see lead 118b, page 105)”

Page 118, lead 139c. Revise the first line of the comments to read 8” tall x 4” wide.

Page 120, lead 143a. Since the DNA of North American Hericium coralloides is distinct from European material, this will need a new name.

Page 122, lead 145b. Add “ group” at the end of the image title since we have about 4 species, all edible and choice.

Page 122, lead 145c. Change the heading under the first image to “Hydnum washingtonianum.“ Our third species is Hydnum melitosarx. They are all edible and choice.

Page 123, lead 147b. Change the first image title to Hydnellum fuscoindicum. Do not change the second image title (the synonym).

Page 124, lead 149b. Change image title to Hydnellum versipelle. In the comments, leave Sarcodon versipellis unchanged.

Page 125, lead 150c. The DNA of Auriscalpium vulgare is sufficiently different from European material that our species will probably get a new name.

Page 130, lead 159a. Change the image title to “Exidia nigricans/glandulosa group”; in the comments, delete the second line from bottom and replace with "The European Exidia recisa has been recently been confirmed by DNA to be in Oregon. Earlier DNA studies revealed the highly similar and closely related Exidia crenata in Cascadia."

Page 130, lead 159b. After Auricularia auricula, add (on conifers) and delete “(see also 2b, #2)” and add a second name “Auricularia angiospermarum (on hardwoods)”.

Page 132, lead 164b. Change the species to Naematelia aurantia. Naematelia encephala is a brain like, white to pinkish brown or yellowish with a white core and only parasitizes Stereum sanguinolentum, mainly found on conifers. Both odorless and tasteless species are found winter and spring. Edible? Who cares?

Page 135, lead 169a. Add a hyphen to the species epithet cornu-damae.

Page 135, lead 170a. add “group” after Alloclavaria purpurea. There are probably 2 species.

Page 136, lead 171a. Change image title to Clavaria fragilis group since DNA points to probable presence of some cryptic species in the group

Page 138, lead 174a. In line 4 of the comments, after C. fusiformis add “(presence in our region unconfirmed)”.

Page 138, lead 174c. After the second sentence of the comments, add “Multiclavula corynoides is a common look-alike”.

Page 138, lead 174d. In image title, spell the species as fistulosa.

Page 140, lead 181a. add “group” after species name to read: “Amanita ocreata group” since DNA points to at least two species. At the end, after “velosa” add group since this name probably represents more than one species.

Page 144, lead 188c. Change the image title to “Amanita chrysoblema”. Amanita muscaria subsp. flavivolvata appears to be limited to California. A. muscaria var. muscaria has a pure white universal veil and is in Alaska and some cities.

Page 145, lead 189b. Distinguishing yellow forms of Amanita pantherinoides from Amanita gemmata is challenging and the concept of what is correctly called Amanita gemmata is unclear.

Page 146, lead 189c. Amanita gemmata can be hard to distinguish from yellowish shades of A. pantherina, and from the genetically different but very similar toxic species, A. pseudobreckonii and A. breckonii, which fruit in the same habitats and seasons.

Page 148, lead 191b (continued). Label the two images Echinoderma ‘asperum’/Lepiota ‘aspera’. The correct genus Echinoderma vs. Lepiota (syn. Lepiota ‘acutesquamosa’) is in debate. We have ± 4 species < 4” wide, with pointed scales, and usually a fleeting ring.

Page 150, lead 194c. Change the first sentence of the comments to read “The cap and stipe but not gills bruise orange-red → dark brown. Both Leucoagaricus erythrophaeus (smooth stipe) and Lepiota castanescens (fibrillose stipe) are very similar in size and color but both bruise red in all parts.

Page 150, lead 194d. Change species name to Lepiota atrodisca group. Five to nine look-alike species of both Lepiota and Leucoagaricus are found fall to winter on soil or rotten wood. Indistinct odor and taste.

Page 151, lead 194e. In the title for the first image correct the spelling to “Lepiota”; add “group” after the second image to make ‘rubrotinctus’ group; add “group” after image three to form “cristata group”.

Page 151, lead 194f. Change “Lepiota” to “Leucoagaricus”.

Page 152, lead 195a. In second line of key lead, change “Limacella illinita to “Zhuliangomyces ‘illinitus’. Our species is genetically distinct from the European Limacella illinita and will need a new name.

Page 152, lead 195b. Change image name to Limacella glioderma group since we have 2 species.

Page 152, lead 195c. Change name to “Zhuliangomyces species”. Our species has long been mistaken for the eastern North American species Limacella glischra, but the two are genetically very distant.

Page 155, lead 199a. At the very end of the comments add. Pseudoclitocybe expallens is distinguished by a brown cap.

Page 155, lead 199b. Change species name to Gerronema atrialba.

Page 156, lead 201a. After Clitocybe dilitata, add = Leurocybe connata. Edibility? Some reports of the toxin muscarine and a dog death, other reports that it does not contain muscarine.

Page 157, lead 202b. Change “gentianus” to “gentianeus” in two places.

Page 157, lead 202c. place “Clitocybe” in single quotes. Change “albirrhiza” to “albirhiza” (two places). This may be renamed Rhizocybe albirhiza.

Page 158, lead 202d. At the end of the comments add: “Note: C. fragrans is not yet confirmed here.”

Page 159, lead 204b. Change the title under the first image to Catathelasma singeri and in the second image delete the single quotes around ventricosum. C. ventricosum is not viscid at any stage, while C. singeri (formerly misidentified as C. imperiale) is viscid when young.

Page 160, lead 205b. Add: “A. subclavipes lacks the bubblegum odor.”

Page 160, lead 205d. In the lead, change name to Spodocybetrulliformis’ using single quotes. Was in Clitocybe and in Infundibulicybe. Our species is an unnamed look-alike.

Page 161, lead 206b. Add “There are 5 unnamed look-alikes.”

Page 161, lead 206c. Add single quotes around ‘sinopicus’. Our local species is distinct and needs a new name.

Page 162, lead 206d. Change the name to “Infundibulicybe gibba”.

Page 162, lead 206e. Change the name to Infundibulicybe ‘squamulosa’. We have two unnamed varieties/species long known here by the misapplied name Clitocybe squamulosa.

Page 162, lead 206f. Place single quotes around ‘inversa’. Unnamed?

Page 163, lead 209a. Add the word “group” after Cystoderma amianthinum. There are four closely related species/varieties. Cystoderma jasonis is darker with a brown tint to flesh and gills.

Page 164, Change name of second mage to Cystoderma ambrosii.

Page 164, lead 210. Add single quotes around ‘luteovirens’ as it may just be color forms of A. albolanaripes.

Page 166, lead 211c. Change name to Tricholoma dulciolens/’caligatum’

Page 166, lead 221d. Change the name under the second image from Tricholoma robustum to Tricholoma badiocephalum.

Page 166, lead 211e. In species name change “vernicatum” to “vernaticum

Page 167, lead 212a. In the middle of the comments, change “dilitata” to “dilatata

Page 168, lead 216a. Delete “Tricholoma populinum group” and replace with Tricholoma ammophilum.

Page 168, lead 216b. At the end of the comments add “the very common Tricholoma fulvum is illustrated here.

Page 169, lead 218a. Change the key lead to: Cap (1-2”), very black scales, stipe ± smooth Replace species name Tricholoma moseri/triste with Tricholoma atrosquamosum group. Tricholoma atrosquamosum is European, our species are unnamed.

Page 170, lead 218b. Replace “myomyces?” with ‘squarrulosum’ (in single quote marks).

Page 170, lead 218c. In the key lead after “gray”, insert “to tan”. Change the image title to “Tricholoma ‘pardinum’ (European). The illustrated species is unnamed. If the scales are tan, it is Tricholoma venenatoides.

Page 170, lead 218d. Change Tricholoma virgatum/argenteum to Tricholoma subacutum. Long known as either Tricholoma virgatum or Tricholoma argenteum.

Page 171, lead 220a. Change the image title to Tricholoma lutescens. Long called Tricholoma sulphurescens, a European look-alike.

Page 171, lead 220b. Change name to Tricholoma inamoenum’. Our species may be T. platyphyllum. We may also have T. inamoenum.

Page 171, lead 220c. We may have two species, T. ‘sulphureum’ (slender) and T. odorum (stocky).

Page 172, lead 221b. Tricholoma saponaceum group – dry cap, can be gray resembling virgatum or yellow, yellow green, even brown. Odor and taste soapy. Possible splash of pink at very bottom of stipe (dig carefully). Four species so far.

Page 172, lead 222a. Change species name to Tricholoma atrofibrillosum. Tricholoma sejunctum was a misapplied name.

Page 172, lead 222b. We have at least three species but do not have Tricholoma equestre, a species which has caused deaths in Europe when consumed in stupendous quantity.

Page 173, lead 224a. G. putillus (whitish stipe) does not turn green in KOH.

Page 173, lead 224b. Delete the first image. Change caption under the remaining image to “Gymnopus erythropus”; Change the lead to read “Cap (<1.5”) brown, hygrophanous; stipe bicolorous; gills ± cream”. G. ‘acervatus’/Connopus ‘acervatus’, unnamed, has a purplish cap & stipe (young), is bitter cooked. Both grow tightly clustered on rotten wood, summer-fall.

Page 173, lead 224c. Change species name to Collybiopsis confluens. Has previously been placed in Gymnopus and then in Marasmiellus.

Page 174, lead 229b. Delete “complex” in the image title. Possibly more than one species, but unclear at present.

Page 174, lead 229b. Change image title from “Melanoleuca evenosa group” to “Melanoleuca strictipes”. Was M. evenosa, may be a new species. Common in grass from the mountains to lowlands, spring, and early summer.

Page 177, lead 236a. Change the lead to replace “Douglas fir cones” with “conifer cones”. Change the image title to “Strobilurus trullisatus/occidentalis”. These two species plus S. albipilatus are separated microscopically. Strobilurus occidentalis is the most common species on many different cones. S. trullisatus is on Douglas fir cones, S albipilatus on cones and debris. All are common summer-winter. Indistinct odor and taste. None are edible.

Page 178, lead 236b. Change species name to Collybiopsis villosipes

Page 180, lead 243c. We may have two similar unnamed species, not belonging in Marasmiellus or Tetrapyrgos and so the name Tetrapyrgos candidus will be replaced. The anticipated new genus is Campanella.

Page 181, lead 244a. Change species to ‘cyanophylla’ in title; in second line of comments, change to cyanophylla.

Page 181, lead 244b. In the fourth line of comments change “C. citrinopallida” to Chromosera citrinopallida; in last line of comments, change line to read “of Chromosera ‘cyanophylla’.

Page 183, lead 249a. In line 2 of comments ,change spelling to ericetorum

Page 184, lead 252. Bottom of page, change spelling from Mycetinus to Mycetinis (3 places on lines 2 and 3 up from page bottom.

Page 185, lead 255a. Change species to Mycena silvae-nigrae (alcalina) group”. Complex of several species, on wood, sometimes growing in duff spring to winter. M silvae-nigrae, alkaline odor, is dark brownish to dark grayish, common. M. leptocephala (probably illustrated here), alkaline odor, is gray; M. abramsii (CA only?), radish to bleach-like odor, gray to brown, darker in center.

Page 185, lead 225b. Add single quotes to form ‘maculata’. Small DNA differences may lead to a new name.

Page 186, lead 256a. add single quotes to ‘amicta’. Our species is genetically very different from the European M. amicta and a new name is required.

Page 187, lead 258b. Add single quotes to ‘aurantiomarginata’ since it is a bit different from the European species.”

Page 188, lead 260b. Change species name to Atheniella (was Hemimycena) delectabilis.

Page 189, lead 261b. Change Mycena to ‘Mycena’ by adding single quotes. Possibly two species present.

Page 191, lead 262c. Change the far-right side of the lead to “263a, 272d”.

Page 192, lead 263g. Remove the single quotes from eburneus. Whether we have the true European species, or a slightly different species is unclear.

Page 194, lead 264d. Change name under the two images to Hygrocybe constans (= H. ‘miniata’). H. constans, Murrill 1912 matches our species, which exists in several forms.

Page 195, lead 267b. In the title change “agathosmus/” to “agathosmoides/”. H. agathosmus was a misapplied European name.

Page 195, lead 269a. After ‘purpurascens’ add group. We appear to have one spring species and a different fall species.

Page 196, lead 270d. Place single quotes on the species ‘capreolarius’. DNA differs from the European species with this name.

Page 197, lead 272d. Change species name from ‘olivaceoalbus’ to fuscoalboides. H. olivaceoalbus is darker and H. whitei has a slenderer stipe.

Page 198, lead 273a. In last line of comments, change “May-October” to May-July. The fall species is distinct.

Page 201, lead 279b. Change species name to Russulaqueletii’. Two ± mild to peppery species with pine fit the photo & description of R. ‘queletii’ (European, hardwoods). R. pseudopelargonia (Douglas fir & hemlock) rarely shows tan to green tones. R. salishensis, (Douglas fir & hemlock), does fade to expose yellow to olive tones. R. ‘pelargonia’ (European, striate cap with shades of purple, gray & red) could be in all forest types. R. ‘violacea’ (European, greenish cap & violaceous tones) may be in deciduous woods. All summer-fall.

Page 203, lead 283a. Change postiana to ‘postiana/lutea’. DNA usually close to the European R. postiana but some collections close to R. lutea.

Page 203, lead 285a. We have two species, an unnamed look-alike to European R. vinososordida and the rarer R. decolorans.”

Page 204, lead 287b. “R. benwooii, a similar species that does not smell of shrimp, rarely stains brown.”

Page 205, lead 288a. “R. ‘aeruginia’ is olive-green with a yellow spore print.

Page 205, lead 288b. One proposed name is R. malva nom. prov. Christian Schwarz.

Page 206, lead 289b. We now found four species in the group and only one is named (R. amerorecondita).

Page 206, lead 289c. Change Image title to Russula cf. cerolens (Russula sororia group). C. cerolens, the most common one, has an oily, ± unpleasant odor and a ± peppery, oily taste. All presumed poisonous.

Page 210, lead 296a. Change spelling from “representaneus” to “repraesentaneus

Page 210, lead 296b. L. montanus, L. californiensis, and L. cascadensis are somewhat similar purple staining species.

Page 211, lead 298b. At the end of the image title, add “(in L. scrobiculatus group)”. Several other hard to distinguish species.

Page 211, lead 299a. after “Lactarius resimus” add “group”. We have at least 2 species.”

Page 212, lead 301c. In the name, remove “var. mitis”. Whether we have 2 varieties, or 2 different species is unresolved.

Page 213, lead 301d. L. subviscidus is slightly hot, has thick white milk and no maple syrup odor.

Page 217, lead 306b. Change title under image to “Armillaria solidipes/ostoyae (the “correct” name is in debate). “A. solidipes/ostoyae, the world’s largest organism, is in Oregon’s Ochoco N. F. and is the size and age of the forest. Second largest is in Gifford Pinchot N. F.

Page 223, lead 317a. Change species name to Pluteus laricinus. P. laricinus has long been known by the name of a European look-alike, P. atromarginatus.”

Page 224, lead 318c. In the image title, change Pluteusromellii’ to Pluteus fulvobadius (P. romellii group)”. P. lutescens is the former NA name. The presence of P. romellii (European) or look-alikes is also possible.

Page 225, lead 320b. Add “group” to the end of the species name. Our common species is Clitopilus cystidiatus but C. prunulus is probably also present

Page 226, lead 322c. Identifying any Entolomataceae is a challenge. We have one known small all-white species.

Page 227, lead 324a. Add single quotes to ‘parva’ .

Page 227, lead 325b. Place single quotes around ‘fuligineomarginata’.

Page 228, lead 326a. In line 5 of the comments, replace “N. verna is” with “N. verna group members are”

Page 228, lead 326d. Change the species spelling to “Nolanea fusco-ortonii var. fusco-ortonii.

Page 229, lead 327b. Change “(Inocybe species, a very large genus, page 246)” to read “(Inocybe and segregate genera, page 246)”.

Page 230, lead 328d. Change image title to Crepidotus calolepis. Add a new first sentence: “What we have long called C. mollis (European) is C. calolepis and one unnamed species. See also C. crocophyllus in MycoMatch.

Page 230, lead 329b. We also have two unnamed species but not the European Phylloporus rhodoxanthus.

Page 230, lead 329c. In the lead, change the cap size to (2-12”). Change the title to Paxillus cf. obscurisporus. We also have P. involutus (European, ± pale cap color), P. cuprinus (associated with Betulaceae) and C. ‘ammoniavirescens’ (stains green with KOH).

Page 231, lead 330b. After attenuata, add group.

Page 231, lead 330 c. After spadicea, add “group”. After kauffmanii, delete “group”.

Page 232, lead 331a. (327g) Change lead to read “Cap (<2”), ± striate when moist, ± viscid, ± fibrous or membranous veil; hygrophanous, on wood, moss or humus (Galerina) 333a”.

Page 232, lead 331c. Change the title under Bolbitius titubans var. olivaceus to “unnamed Bolbitius species”.

Page 232, lead 332b. In the last line of the comments, change “C. filaris” to “Pholiotina rugosa”.

Page 233, lead 332c. Change the image title to “Pholiotina cf. rugosa”. Species with a partial veil/ring were long known by the European Pholiotina/Conocybe filaris. We have about six species. If the ring disappears, they resemble C. tenera.” All are potentially deadly (amatoxins).

Page 233, immediately after lead 332c. Insert the following paragraph: “Galerina is a challenging genus containing over 300 species world-wide and at least five subgenera that may be raised to species rank. All are small to tiny tan to brown mushrooms. Three Cascadia region species in the subgenus Naucoriopsis contain amanitins. One, Galerina marginata, has caused deadly poisonings and contains concentrations of α- and β-amanitins comparable to the levels found in the deadly Amanita phalloides. Galerina castaneipes contains slightly lower concentrations of α-amanitin and usually also contains β-amanitins. Galerina badipes lacks α- and β- amanitins but reportedly contains γ-amanitins. Positive identification of the deadly species is exceptionally challenging. No Galerina species should ever be consumed even though no amatoxins have been identified in Galerina subgenera other than Naucoriopsis.

Page 233, lead 334a. Delete the key lead, the image, and the comments for Galerina autumnalis since extensive DNA work has not turned up this species in western North America.

Page 233, lead 334b. Renumber this lead as 334a. Change lead to read “Cap (< 2.5”), hygrophanous, ± viscid, ± membranous veil, ± ring” Replace current image with the current Galerina autumnalis image. Change the first sentence of the comments to read “Cap skin ± peelable. Galerina autumnalis was a misapplied name. Do not taste, contains α- and β-amanitins and is DEADLY. Galerina venenata is a synonym.

Page 234, lead 334c. Delete Galerina stylifera entry, image, and all associated comments. Image is possibly of Galerina marginata.

Page 235, lead 335b. After vittiformis, add “group”. We have at least three distinct species.

Page 235, lead 335c. At the start of the comments add: “Galerina dimorphocystis (MI) and Galerina heterocystis (Jamaica) are synonyms.”

Page 235, lead 335d. Change name to Galerina cf. subfiliformis.

Page 236 leads 337b and 337c. Eliminate lead 337c. Create new 2-line lead 337b. “Cap (2-8”) yellow, salmon, wine-red, ± dense dark reddish scales, ± persistent veil Gymnopilus luteofolius (syn Gymnopilus aeruginosus)”. Two somewhat different looking fungi have the same DNA and so get the same name. The cap and stipe may both be densely scaly. When the stipe is smooth to fibrillose, the cap has small scales (what I had in the past called G. aeruginosus). Blue staining in this case indicates the presence of psilocybin (in low quantities). On both hardwood and conifer logs and sawdust. Odor mild to alkaline. Taste bitter.

Page 237, lead 338b. In comments change G. sapineus group to G. penetrans group.

Page 237, lead 338c. Change image title to Gymnopilus cf. aurantiophyllus. A species in the G. penetrans group, synonym G. sapineus.

Page 238, lead 340c. Change the image title to Pholiota carbonaria. At the end of the comments change “P. carbonaria” to “Pholiota highlandensis.”

Page 241, lead 347a. Change image title to: Pyrrhulomyces astragalinus.

Page 241, lead 347b. In the F. alnicola group of smooth-capped difficult to ID species.

Page 241, lead 347c. After spumosa, add “group”. After “Odor and taste mild”, add a coma and “sometimes with a green corn odor.”

Page 242, lead 349b. Change title from Pholiota aurivella group to Pholiota adiposa group. Synonym Pholiota aurivella.

Page 243, lead 350a. Formerly a member of the P. aurivella group. P. aurivella is now a synonym of the highly variable P. adiposa.”. Change the last sentence from “Not edible” to “Delicious, see 349b. Some people are sensitive.

Page 244, lead 351a. Change the title for the image to “Agrocybe smithii/putaminum”. We appear to have Agrocybe putaminum in our region. A. smithii may or may not be a separate species.

Page 244, lead 351c. Change image title to “Agrocybe dura/molesta”. Our species may not be distinct from A. praecox.

Page 245, lead 352b. Add “group” to the end of the image title: “sacchariolens group”

Page 245, lead 352c. Add “group” after “mesophaeum”. Possibly 6 species with very similar DNA.

Page 245, lead 352d. At the end of the lead itself, change spelling to “sphagnum”. A member of the H. velutipes group.

Page 246, starting paragraph. Delete the first sentence and replace with two new sentences: “The formerly huge genus Inocybe has been split into four genera. Members of these genera share ± thready looking, ± dry caps. Change the start of the last sentence of the paragraph from “All Inocybe species…to “These species…”

Page 246, lead 354c. Change “Inocybe sororia” to “Pseudosperma sororium group”. The 10 look-alikes in this group do not include Pseudosperma rimosum (Inocybe rimosa) which has a spermatic odor and has not been found here.

Page 246, lead 355b. Change the titles to read “Inosperma calamistratum groupand “Inosperma maximum”. These were Inocybe calamistrata and Inocybe hirsuta var. maxima respectively. I. maximum, distinguished by a much fatter stipe plus gills and flesh that redden when bruised, is often under hemlocks. We have 10 named & unnamed species, odors from fishy-resinous to Pelargonium-like to green corn (Inosperma mucidiolens). Edibility? All considered poisonous. HPLC testing revealed no psilocybin.

Page 247, lead 357a. Change name to Mallocybe fibrillosum/subdecurrens. Long known as Inocybe dulcamara.

Page 248, lead 359a. Change cap size in lead to “(< 2”); change image title to “Inocybe napipes & Inocybe mixtilis group”. Caps silky-fibrillose, ± conic to umbonate. Gills whitish to pale brown (edges remain white in I. napipes). Bulbous stipe base (marginate in I. mixtilis group). Cortina present in I. napipes. Found in many forest types, usually fall. All are poisonous.”

Page 249, lead 359b. In line 4 of the comments, right after I. whitei/pudica, add (“correct” name is in debate).

Page 249, lead 359c. Change photo label to “Inocybe sindonia group”.

Page 250, top of the page. Delete the first sentence on page and replace with three new sentences: “Cortinarius is now divided into several new genera, six of which are present in our area: Cortinarius, Aureonarius, Calonarius, Cystinarius, Hygronarius, Phlegmacium, and Thaxterogaster. Telamonia and Dermocybe remain in Cortinarius. The other former subgenera are split into multiple new genera and subgenera/sections.” To make room for this drastic change, delete all comments starting on line seven with “Only one…” through “… worth the risk.”

Page 250, lead 361b. Delete “(subgenus Phlegmacium)” replace with “(genera Cortinarius, Calonarius and Phlegmacium)”

Page 250, lead 361d. Delete “(subgenus Seriocybe)” and replace with “(genera Cortinarius & Phlegmacium and new subgenera/sections)”

Page 250, lead 361f. Delete “(subgenus Leprocybe)” and replace with “(genera in our area: Cortinarius, Aureonarius, Cystinarius and 2 new subgenera)”.

Page 251, lead 362b. Change image name to Calonarius saxamontanus (= Cortinarius saxamontanus).

Page 251, lead 362c. Change image name to Calonarius magnivelatus (= Cortinarius magnivelatus). At the end of the comments add “C. wiebeae (brown gills young), C. magnivelatus whitish gills young.”

Page 252, lead 363b. Change photo name to the lengthy: “Aureonarius rubellus (was Cortinarius rubellus = C. rainierensis, C. speciosissimus, C. orellanoides)”.

Page 254, lead 368a. Add the word “group” after californicus in the image title.

Page 254, lead 368b. Delete the word “group” in the image title.

Page 255, lead 368c. Change image title to Hygronarius renidens (= Cortinarius renidens, Gymnopilus terrestris).

Page 255, lead 369a. Replace the last sentence of the comments with this sentence: “The large Cortinarius brunneus group contains several similar members.”

Page 256, lead 371a. In the image title, add a forward slash “/” after alboviolaceus. Delete the existing second line and replace with “griseoviolaceus group”

Page 257, lead 373a. Change the image title to “Cortinarius salor group”. In the first sentence of the comments, after “similar to”, add “two of”.

Page 257, lead 373b. This group also has at least one unnamed species.

Page 258, lead 375b. Change image title to “Thaxterogaster multiformis (= Cortinarius multiformis)”.

Page 258, lead 375d. Change the image title to “Cortinarius variosimilis group”. Two genetic species.

Page 259, lead 376a. Change image title to “Thaxterogaster occidentalis (= Cortinarius occidentalis)”. “T. purpurascens and T. subpurpurascens were also formerly in Cortinarius.

Page 259, lead 376b. Change image title to “Thaxterogaster porphyropus (= Cortinarius porphyropus)”.

Page 261, top of the page. Change “Cortinarius species” to “Cortinarius and species in the new genera (see page250)” are genera Cortinarius, Calonarius, and Phlegmacium.” The known oak-associated species in Cortinarius subgenus Telamonia have now been named. Most of the other oak-associated species remain unnamed.”

Page 261, lead 380a. Delete “(subgenus Phlegmacium)” and replace with “(genera Phlegmacium and Calonarius)”.

Page 263, lead 384a. Change image title to “Calonarius albidolilacinus (= Cortinarius albidolilacinus.

Page 263, lead 384b. Change Name to “Calonarius anetholens (= Cortinarius anetholens)”.

Page 263, lead 384c. Change name to “Phlegmacium aurescens (= Cortinarius aurescens)”.

Page 264, lead 384f. Change name to “Calonarius amabilis (= Cortinarius amabilis)”.

Page 264, lead 384g. Change name to “Calonarius vellingae (= Cortinarius vellingae)”.

Page 266, lead 389a. in line 5 of the comments, change “Agarcus” to “Agaricus”.

Page 266, lead 389b.In the first line of the comments, change “abruptibulbous” to “abruptibulbus”.

Page 267, image title change. It should be “deodorffensis” with a double f.

Page 268, lead 391a. After diminutivus in the image title, add “group”.

Page 268, lead 391b. Place purpurellus in the title image in single quotes ‘purpurellus’.

Page 268, lead 391c. Add single quotes around ‘micromegethus’ (two places). At the end of the comments, add “Possibly identical to the European A. comptulus.

Page 269, lead 393a. In first line of the comments change spelling to rutilus.

Page 272, lead 398c. Change the title to Stropharia aff. cyanea. S. aeruginosa is not here. What we have is unclear.

Page 272, lead 398d. Place single quotes around ‘squamosus var. squamosus’ we have a possibly an unnamed species.

Page 272, lead 398e. Delete “var. thraustus” place single quotes around ‘squamosus’

Page 273, lead 399a. Change image title to a two-line entry: “Leratiomyces percevalii = Leratiomyces riparius”.

Page 273, lead 399b. add “group” after “semiglobata”.

Page 274 leads 401a and 401b. The first line of the comments for lead 401a should be the first line of the comments for 401b (and vice versa).

Page 274, lead 401c. Change species name to “Deconica aff. inquilina”. Deconica inquilina itself has decurrent gills.

Page 276, lead 403b. At the end of the comments, add “Two species?”

Page 276, lead 403b. Remove the single quotes around cyanescens.

Page 278, lead 406b. At the end of the image title, add “= Panaeolus foenisecii?”

Page 278, lead 406c. In the image title, add “group” to image title: “subbalteatus group”. We may have several genetically distinct species.

Page 279, lead 407b. add “group” to the image title to form: “papilionaceus group”. Current name for P. campanulatus and P. sphinctrinus. P. retirugis (very wrinkled cap) is genetically distinct.

Page 280, lead 409a. Place single quotes in image title so that it reads ‘lacrymabunda’. We probably have two species, but so far have not found the European L. lacrymabunda”.

Page 280, lead 409b. Needs to be moved to the genus Lacrymaria.

Page 281, lead 411b. Add the word “group” in the image title: “Psathyrella piluliformis group”.

Page 281, lead 411c. In the second line of the comments, change “2-3” to “4”

Page 282, lead 412a. Change the species name to “Candolleomyces candolleanus” and remove the word “group”. A very variably colored common species.

Page 283, lead 413a. Change “ulignicola” to “uliginicola”.

Page 283, lead 414a. At the very end of the lead, change “varieties” to “group”. Change the title under the first image to C. atramentaria. Change the title under the middle image from “var. acuminatus” to “C. striata or C. acuminata”. Change the title under the third image to “C. atramentaria?C. acuminata and C. striata both have narrow umbonate caps and are distinguished microscopically, while C. atramentaria has a broader, non-umbonate cap. The third image resembling C. atramentaria except with a ring is a mystery. Var. crassivelata (not illustrated) has a distinct ring on the stipe and a scaly cap. All contain coprine, a carcinogen that causes Antabuse-like symptoms if alcohol is consumed afterwards.

Page 284, lead 414d. Add a question mark in the image title to create “flocculosus?”. Several fragile species have caps covered with bran-like to felty particles (remains of a universal veil) that readily wash off. These include C. flocculosus and the C. domesticus group.

Update 7 July 5, 2022

Amanita pahasapaensis nom prov appears on page 142 lead 184b under the name Amanita lindgreniana nom prov, a very similar species that is found nearby. The identification has just been provided by Dr. Rod Tulloss based on DNA analysis. This is an amazing find since A. pahasapaensis is otherwise only know from the Black Hills of South Dakota (under lodgepole pine) and from Grant County, New Mexico under gambel oaks and alligator juniper. The species is distinguished microscopically, spores (9.1-)10.5-14.0(-15.2) and by absence of clamps at the base of the basidia. I find it at 4,000 feet in small open areas near both mountain alders, grand fir, Douglas fir and spruce.